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African Business 2020 edition

  • Text
  • Agenda
  • Business
  • Invest
  • Union
  • Industry
  • Sustainable
  • Development
  • Regions
  • Trends
  • Sectors
  • Afcfta
  • Trade
  • Investment
  • Africa
  • Global
  • Continent
  • Projects
  • Economic
  • Infrastructure
  • Countries
A unique guide to business and investment in Africa. Global Africa Network is proud to launch this inaugural edition of African Business 2020 at a time of energetic planning for a prosperous future for the continent. The African Union’s Agenda 2063 is much more than a document about a hoped-for future, it contains concrete goals and deliverables. The Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) and the development finance institution, the African Development Bank (AfDB) are already rolling out valuable projects that are changing the reality on the ground in vital areas of the African economy. Perhaps the most significant event of recent times is the signing by African leaders of the African Continental Free Trade Area agreement (AfCFTA) which will bring together all 55 member states of the African Union and cover a market of more than 1.2-billion people. African Business 2020 has articles on all of these recent trends, plus overviews of the key economic sectors and regional and country profiles. In 2019 Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed received the Nobel Peace Prize for peace-making efforts in his region. The economic dividends of peace are beginning to be felt. In 2020 South African President Cyril Ramaphosa assumed the mantle of AU Chairperson. He brings to the role considerable experience in conflict management, constitution-writing and seeking consensus. Global Africa Network is a proudly African company which has been producing region-specific business and investment guides since 2004, including South African Business and Nigerian Business, in addition to its online investment promotion platform www.globalafricanetwork.com

SPECIAL FEATURE Success

SPECIAL FEATURE Success comes in many guises Ethiopia and Mauritius show there is no single formula for putting a country on the road to progress. Both Ethiopia and Mauritius are members of the African Union (AU) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Apart from these links, its difficult to see much similarity between the landlocked Ethiopia which stretches over more than a million square kilometres and the small island nation of Mauritius. What they have in common is that they have found a way to improve their economies. To do that, both nations’ politics needed to be less fractious. Mauritius has achieved that. Ethiopia shows signs that it is on the way to stability. The other common denominator is textile manufacturing, although the two countries approached the opportunity from opposite ends. Mauritius chose to focus on the high-end market and has developed the skills and quality-control protocols needed to supply that niche. Ethiopia is building a sector which can handle huge volumes. A Bangladeshi garment manufacturer has set up a factory in Ethiopia which supplies H&M and a Sri Lankan company, Hela Clothing, has produced and shipped its one-millionth garment from its factory in Ethiopia. This is part of a drive by Ethiopia to increase its annual export earnings in clothing from 5-million to -billion (CNN). In terms of a financial market index published by Absa in 2019, the two countries are at opposite ends of the scale. The survey concluded that Mauritius ranked second in Africa (behind South Africa) in a set of indicators including market depth, access to foreign exchange and transparency. Ethiopia placed 20th but – crucially and typically in the current environment – Ethiopia was sure to improve its position in 2020 because AFRICAN BUSINESS 2020 28

SPECIAL FEATURE it is about to establish a stock exchange. Reforms in Ethiopia are just beginning, Mauritius has been a work in progress for several decades. Ethiopia The Nobel Peace Prize winner for 2019 was Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. He won the award primarily for unblocking a post-war stalemate between his country and Eritrea and calming other regional conflicts, but he has also made big changes domestically since taking office in 2018. In the words of the Director of the Institute for Pan-African Thought and Conversation Adekeye Adebajo, Ahmed has been a “reformist new broom unleashing political freedoms, encouraging foreign investment and promoting reconciliation”. The peace dividend has allowed the construction of a vital rail link to Djibouti and encouraged a number of new investors to visit Ethiopia, mostly notably from Turkey. Chinese companies have long been present in the country, with the previous rulers of Ethiopia having been close to China. Ethiopian Airways has used the country’s strategic location between Asia and Europe to build Addis Ababa’s position as a freight and passenger hub. So successful has it been that in 2018 it replaced Dubai as the top transit hub for long-haul passengers to Africa. The country’s population of about 94-million is young (about 50% are younger than 15 and 70% are younger than 30) and the state is focussed on education. Science and technology are emphasised and the number of Ethiopians in higher education in 2017 was five times what it was in 2005 (World Bank). Spending on public infrastructure has focussed on transport, energy and industrial parks. The percentage of public spending is due to come down, but it will be replaced by the private sector as a vigorous privatisation process begins. Manufacturing currently accounts for 10% of GDP so there is huge scope for growth. Other state-owned assets which will become available to private investors are in the following sectors: maritime, aviation, electricity, logistics and railways. Exports in renewable energy are expected to generate up to -billion annually. Mauritius Although Mauritius ranked second to South Africa in the Absa Financial Market Index, in almost every other index the island country is ranked number one in Africa. For “Doing Business in Africa: Sub Saharan Africa 2018”, the World Bank places Mauritius 25th in the world, and first in Africa. The Heritage Foundation’s 2019 “Index of Economic Freedom” has exactly the same result. This trend is repeated across a range of measures; a global competitive index rates the country 45th and 1st, the WEF’s enabling trade report gives scores of 39th and 1st. Where the country’s GDP per capita was around 0 at independence in 1968, it’s now above 000. Between 1977 and 2008, the country’s growth rate performed well above the Sub-Saharan average of 2.9% at 4.6%. As a colony Mauritius was a sugar-based monoculture. Sugar accounted for 20% of GDP and 60% of exports. Today sugar cane is still in the export basket but there are also textiles, clothing, processed fish and cut flowers. Services exports such as financial services and tourism are rising, and medical tourism and higher education are seen as a high-value sectors worth investing in. The African Development Bank (AfDB) expects growth of more than 5% in several sectors including information and communications technology, retail and wholesale, food processing and financial services. In 2016 the Kenyan economy received -million of investment from Mauritius-based banks and financial institutions (AfDB). Mauritian post-independence politics was not always stable, but a parliamentary system and strong institutions have helped the country move forward. Property rights and an independent judiciary are factors that promote foreign investment. Shrewd investment in an Export Processing Zone helped to turn the economy away from a single commodity. Personal and corporate tax rates are a flat 15% and in 2018 property transfers were simplified and other reforms were introduced to encourage entrepreneurs. ■ 29 AFRICAN BUSINESS 2020

Other recent publications by Global Africa Network:

African Business 2020 edition
South African Business 2020 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2020-21 edition
Northern Cape Business 2020/21 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2020 edition
Western Cape Business 2020 edition
Free State Business 2020 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2019/20 edition
Limpopo Business 2019-20 edition
Gauteng Business 2019-20 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2019-20 edition
Northern Cape Business 2019/20 edition
Free State Business 2019 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2019 edition
North West Business 2019 edition
Western Cape Business 2019 edition
South African Business 2019 edition
Limpopo Business 2018-19 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2018-19 edition
Northern Cape Business 2018-19 edition
Gauteng Business 2018-19 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2018-19 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2018 edition
North West Business 2018 edition
Western Cape Business 2018 edition
Free State Business 2018 edition
South African Business 2018 edition
Limpopo Business 2017-18 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2017-18 edition
Gauteng Business 2017-18 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2017-18 edition
Northern Cape Business 2017-18 edition
North West Business 2017 edition
Free State Business 2017 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2017 edition
Western Cape Business 2017 edition
South African Business 2017 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2017 edition
Limpopo Business 2016-17 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2016-17 edition
South African Business 2016 edition
Gauteng Business 2016 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2016 edition