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Journal of African Business Issue 6

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Welcome to the Journal of African Business, a unique guide to business and investment in Africa. The first issue of the journal was published in 2020 as an annual publication. Since then, the quarterly format has been adopted, giving our team more opportunities to bring to readers up-to-date information and opinions and offering our clients increased exposure at specific times of the year.


AFRICA IS MAKING PROGRESS ON VISA-FREE TRAVEL Burundi, Djibouti and Ethiopia have shown the most progress in easing travel restrictions according to the seventh 2022 Africa Visa Openness Index, published by the African Development Bank Group and the African Union Commission. The seventh Africa Visa Openness Index was launched at the African Economic Conference in December 2022 Credit: African Development Bank Group Despite Covid-19 lockdowns and travel disruptions, 93% of African countries have maintained or improved their score on the Africa Visa Openness Index (AVOI) relative to 2021. Two-thirds of African countries have adopted more liberal visa policies compared to six years ago. The 2022 Africa Visa Openness Index report shows African countries making progress in their freedom of travel policies, most of which had been severely curtailed by the Covid-19 crisis. The annual publication, prepared by the African Development Bank Group in collaboration with the African Union Commission, is now in its seventh edition and was launched on the sidelines of the 2022 African Economic Conference in Mauritius. The report tracks visa policies adopted by African governments on three main criteria: whether entry to citizens from other African countries is visa-free, if a visa on arrival can be obtained, and whether travellers are required to obtain visas ahead of travelling to other African countries. The 2022 report underlines the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021, during which most countries restricted movement, both domestically and for international travel. Restrictions on international travel ranged from closing entire borders to quarantines, screening measures, and bans on visitors from countries deemed “high risk”. Domestic restrictions included a gamut of measures such as prohibitions on travelling between provinces, bans on non-essential movement, curfews and rules that limited gatherings. The 2022 report reflects on renewed signs of progress: 10 countries improved their visa openness score over the past year and visa openness on the continent now exceeds that recorded during the year prior to the Covid-19 pandemic and is in line with the peak score achieved in 2020. Progressive visa policies that increase visa-free entry or to visa on arrival policies will ensure that this positive trend continues. The use of technology and a greater adoption of eVisa systems will help fast-track the ease at which travellers can cross borders. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 2022 AFRICA VISA OPENNESS INDEX • African travel has become more open to African citizens in 2022, with fewer restrictions overall. There is now an even split between travel that is visa-free, and travel where a visa may be obtained on arrival at the destination country. 14

TRAVEL RULES • Three countries, Benin, The Gambia and the Seychelles, offer visa-free entry to Africans of all other countries. In 2016 and 2017, only one country did so. • 24 African countries offer an eVisa, five more than five years ago. • 36 countries have improved or maintained their Visa Openness Index score since 2016. • 50 countries have maintained or improved their Visa Openness Index score relative to 2021, usually after removing some of the visa policy restrictions implemented during the pandemic. • 48 countries out of 54, the vast majority of African countries, now offer visa-free travel to the nationals of at least one other African country. • 42 countries offer visa-free travel to the nationals of at least five other African countries. Interestingly, lower-income countries account for a large share of the countries that make up the top-20 ranked countries in 2022 with liberal visa policies: 45% of countries in the top-20 on the index are classified as low-income countries, while a further 45% of countries are classified as lower middle-income. EVisas allow prospective travellers to apply for a visa from the comfort of their home or workplace ahead of travel, streamline the application process, reduce time at borders, provide a greater measure of certainty ahead of travel, reduce the need to submit a passport for processing to consular offices and make travel safer and more secure. African Union Commission Deputy Chairperson Dr Monique Nsazabaganwa, says of the report, “This edition links free movement to the development of regional value chains, investments, trade in services and the AfCFTA. There is greater recognition that human mobility is key to Africa’s integration efforts.” African Development Bank Group Acting Vice President in charge of Regional Development, Integration and Business Delivery, Marie-Laure Akin-Olugbade, remarked, “The Africa Visa Openness Index has been tracking visa openness as a measure of the freedom of movement since 2016. This year’s edition shows many African countries having greatly simplified their visa regime over the past year.” The 2022 edition of the report showcases three countries that have made the most progress in their visa openness, namely Burundi, Djibouti and Ethiopia. Ethiopia in particular has risen several places on the index to retain its position in the continent’s top-20 performers after removing the temporary measures instituted in 2021. In an innovation, the report provides an analysis of free movement of persons at regional economic community level in Africa. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the East African Community are the most open communities, with ECOWAS hosting eight of the top 10 countries. Credit: Nairobi National Park Commenting on the report, African Development Bank Group Acting Director in charge of the Regional Integration Coordination Office Jean-Guy Afrika, said, “The Africa Visa Openness Index has tracked the evolution of visa regimes on the African continent from before the pandemic to today. As the 2022 report shows, African countries are dismantling many of the measures imposed during the pandemic. Indeed, on the whole, the continent has returned to a level of visa openness last seen just before the pandemic began.” SOME KEY STATISTICS + For 27% of intra-Africa travel – travel by African citizens between African countries – African citizens do not need a visa, up from 25% in 202. + For 27% of intra-Africa travel, African citizens can obtain a visa on arrival, up from 24% in 2021. + For 47% of intra-Africa travel, African citizens are still required to obtain a visa before travelling, an improvement on the 51% in 2021. Check-in desks at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport Credit: Kenya Airports Authority ABOUT THE AFRICA VISA OPENNESS INDEX The Africa Visa Openness Index measures the extent to which African countries are open to travellers from other African countries. Published yearly since 2016, the AVOI tracks changes in countries’ scores over time to show how national policies evolve on the freedom of movement across Africa. View the Africa Visa Openness Report at: 15

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