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Service - Leadership in Government - Issue 77

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September is a time of renewal. In this edition of Service, we look at what is about to be renewed, in the process of being renewed, and in need of renewal in South Africa.

S municipality POVERTY,

S municipality POVERTY, INEQUALITY AND FOOD SECURITY Johannesburg struggles with high levels of poverty and inequality, social exclusion and substandard levels of human advancement. These issues are further exacerbated by unequal development, long and costly commutes, as well as insufficient basic services. Food insecurity affects millions of city dwellers – an estimated 23% have inadequate or severely inadequate food access. This contributes to massive social costs in the form of healthcare, loss of productivity and earnings, social tension and compromised educational attainment. The Gini coefficient is a summary statistic of income inequality. If the Gini coefficient is equal to zero, income is distributed in a perfectly equal manner, in other words there is no variance between the high- and low-income earners within the population. In contrast, if the Gini coefficient equals one, income is completely inequitable. The Gini coefficient in Johannesburg is currently 0.65. Income inequality has virtually remained the same for 20 years. The consequences of Covid-19 lockdown restrictions that have resulted in lost incomes and businesses closing down, may worsen inequality. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSPORTATION Johannesburg’s urban form is a consequence of apartheid planning, which contributed to urban sprawl with race-based townships deliberately developed on the periphery of the city. Accordingly, the digressive city is also a divided one with places of work that are far from where most of the population lives. Johannesburg has some of the lowest urban densities when compared to global cities. Average densities within the metropolitan region indicate 521 persons per square kilometre. Average densities in the inner city are estimated to be 2 270 within 10km radius. A total of 45% of Johannesburg residents commute with mini-bus taxis. The minibus taxi sector is seen as unstable and is often besieged with violence, crime and poor quality of roads. A total of 28% use private cars with only 4% and 0.4% who use Rea Vaya or Metrobus and the Gautrain respectively. The increased use of private cars and minibus taxis has resulted in increased traffic congestion. The City’s transport sector continues to be the highest carbon emitter (38%) when compared to the industrial (28%) and residential (26%) sectors. SAFETY AND SECURITY Safety and security are an ongoing concern in the City, compounded by factors such as historical, geographical, social and economic inequality. Residents experience relatively high levels of crime and have moderately high levels of fear of crime. Robbery is Johannesburg’s key crime problem, followed by assault. HOUSING Approximately 1.4-million (75.1%) of all households in the City live in formal dwellings. The housing backlog is a major concern for the City. The formal dwelling backlog (number of households not living in a formal dwelling) is currently at 24.9%. This has worsened from 18.5% in 2017. The housing backlog is estimated at 448 200 units with an average delivery of only 3 500 housing units per year. This shortage has led to the development of over 211 informal settlements. The housing backlog comprises of informal settlements, overcrowding in the hostels, the nonregulated backyard rental, inner-city overcrowding and homeless people in general. ___ ___ HERITAGE AND HISTORY • Joburg was founded in 1886 – one of world’s youngest major cities • 40% of the entire world’s human ancestor fossils have been found in areas adjoining the City • 150 heritage sites, half of which are national monuments • 40 000 tons of gold have been found in Witwatersrand, the reef on which the City was built Jacaranda trees are synonymous with summers in Johannesburg. The trees blossom from late September to November. City of Johannesburg Transport MMC Nonhlanhla Makhuba. 9 247km of roads, of which 1 040km is not tarred 90% of City’s people have to walk less than 1km to access mode of transport Average travel time for commuters is 72 minutes 1 780 traffic lights 180 000 streetlights 554 buses on 80 routes transport 20-million passengers per year Traffic congestion has increased by 26% since 1999

municipality S Two active power stations with a total capacity of 600MW 71% of housing in Johannesburg is inadequate. ACCESS TO SERVICES Provision of basic services to the community of Johannesburg is comparatively high with most households (both formal and informal) enjoying access to piped water (98.8%), sanitation (96.4%) and electricity (92.3%). There continues to be a deficit, particularly in informal settlements, where less than half of the households have access to basic sanitation. Ponty Towers, Hillbrow, Johannesburg. electricity continues to be most prevalent in informal dwellings and settlements. One of the critical challenges the City faces is the cost and demands of constant maintenance and upgrading of the energy infrastructure within the city to enable appropriate, secure and reliable distribution. This challenge is worsened by illegal connections, cable theft and vandalism. City Power has commissioned several feasibility studies to investigate the potential use of renewable energy sources to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and to ensure sustainable use of energy. Cllr Mpho Moerane, Member of the Mayoral Committee for Environment, Infrastructure and Services. Water and sanitation A total of 1.47-million (98.4%) households have access serviced through yard connection in formalised areas and through communal standpipes within a maximum walking distance of 200 metres in informal settlements. The City has been successful in decreasing the water backlog (represented by the number of households that do not have piped water within 200 metres of their dwelling) over time. A total of 1.36-million (92.7%) households in Johannesburg have access to sanitation through individual sewer connection to properties in formalised areas and at basic level through VIPs and ablution blocks in informal settlements. Water consumption remains constant at 285 litres per person per day year-on-year. The City has 100% compliance with sludge disposal requirements. Ageing infrastructure remains one of the key challenges. 100 water towers and reservoirs 8 000km of water pipes 8 149km of sewerage pipes Electricity and energy A total of 1.6-million households (92.3%) have electricity, which they use for multiple purposes, while 12 806 households (0.8%) have electricity for lighting only. Approximately 133 540 households (7.7%) have no electrical connection. On average, this figure has increased at 0.45% per year since 2007. A lack of Decommissioned power station in Orlando, Soweto. The Human Development Index (HDI) combines three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. A maximum value of one indicates a high level of development, while zero indicates no human development. The current HDI figures underscore the 2021 target by 1.39% at 0.73. The quality of life index seeks to measure the satisfaction level of residents using broad concepts like living conditions, social cohesion, social exclusion, attitudes towards institutions and other topics. The current quality of life figures (6.34) underperform the 2021 target (6.50) by 0.16%. Service magazine | 13

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