S municipality Waste management The City collects and removes 1.72-million (92.9%) households’ refuse weekly. An additional 11 100 (0.6%) households have their refuse removed less often than weekly; 94 351 (5.1%) make use of communal refuse dumps, while 14 800 (0.8%) use their own refuse dump, and 9 250 (0.5%) reportedly have no refuse removal. A total of 131 352 (7.1%) households experience backlogs (below formal once-weekly collection). Over a 10-year period, this rate has increased. Constitution Hill is a living museum that tells the story of South Africa’s journey to democracy. The site is a former prison and military fort that bears testament to South Africa’s turbulent past and today is home to the country’s Constitutional Court, which endorses the rights of all citizens. The City collects 1.8-million tons of garbage each year: 244 200 tons in the form of illegal dumping and 1 779 tons is street litter. Gold Reef City is an amusement park in Johannesburg. Located on an old gold mine which closed in 1971, the park is themed around the gold rush that started in 1886. “The City of tomorrow is one where there are new landmarks for opportunity. It is a place where all homes are digitally connected and where Joburg is a safe city for all its residents. Let us work together to make this a reality. We must ensure that we are smart, clean and green, empowering the youth and vulnerable, supported by an accountable government, and an active, engaged citizenry.” – Executive Mayor Makhubo (recently deceased), State of the City Address, 6 May 2021 PLACES OF INTEREST The Apartheid Museum opened in 2001 and is acknowledged as the pre-eminent museum in the world dealing with 20th-century South Africa, at the heart of which is the apartheid story. The Nelson Mandela Bridge is 295 metres long and can carry 3 000 cars per hour. The total cost of the bridge is R120-million and construction took 18 months. Soweto is a sprawling conglomeration of houses and shack settlements about 20km south-west of the City. A plan for the creation of a Soweto Heritage Precinct that takes place in important historical sites in Orlando West in particular, has been approved by the City. S ___ ___ ENGAGING ENVIRONMENT • Year-round daily sunshine • Average 12 hours of sunlight per day • Clear blue skies • Winters are short and mild • Temperature neither humid nor too hot • Largest man-made forest in the world with six-million trees throughout the city • Altitude is 2 000m above sea-level • 17 nature reserves • 12 river systems • 63ha of bird sanctuaries • 1 000ha of green space • 4 443ha of open veld • 80ha of botanical gardens • 106 dams 14 | Service magazine
energy S RED Zones for Green Energy The CSIR Energy Centre is a first port of call for South African decision-makers in politics, business and science for advice on the energy transition. This transition is a move towards a more sustainable energy system and will ultimately lead to renewables making up a significant share of the primary energy supply. Service interviewed the CSIR team to find out more. In 2012, government adopted the National Development Plan (NDP), which provided South Africa’s plan to accelerate infrastructure development to address service delivery backlogs and facilitate economic growth. The NDP would be achieved through the implementation of strategic integrated projects. Linked to this, to ensure that environmental authorisations are not a cause for delay, the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE)* embarked on a programme of Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for large-scale developments. These SEAs are aimed to preassess environmental sensitivities within the proposed development areas at a regional scale to simplify the site-specific Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) when they are undertaken and to focus the assessment requirements on the sensitivity of the sites. The SEAs led to the promulgation of 11 REDZs and seven Electricity Grid Infrastructure (EGI) corridors. ■ National Strategic Environmental Assessment REDZs and Transmission Corridors in South Africa STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS PHASE 1 SEA: WIND AND SOLAR PV • Long lead-in time (up to seven years) gazetted for implementation in usage (ie Gauteng) and in areas ENERGY (2013-2015) and delays in obtaining environmental February 2018. where mining is in decline. The CSIR was appointed to identify approvals for transmission lines The CSIR compiled Environmental This resulted in the identification REDZ and coordinate the legislative • Current grid network is inadequate Management Programmes (EMPrs) to of three additional REDZs, referred decision-making process for these to meet demands of diversifying guide the construction of the EGI for: to as the Emalahleni, Klerksdorp projects. This led to the identification energy mix and needs to be expanded • Overhead electricity transmission and Beaufort West REDZs. of eight REDZs in the Northern Cape and adapted rapidly to bring new and distribution infrastructure (Upington, Kimberley and Springbok), generation online. • Substation infrastructure for the PHASE 2 SEA: PHASED GAS Western Cape (Overberg and • Lack of understanding of constraints transmission and distribution PIPELINE NETWORK AND Komsberg), Eastern Cape (Cookhouse upfront in the planning and negotiation of electricity. EXPANSION OF ELECTRICITY and Stormberg) and in the North West of servitudes. In March 2019, these EMPrs were GRID INFRASTRUCTURE province (Vryburg). Five strategic transmission corridors gazetted for implementation. (2017-2019) were assessed as part of the 2016 This SEA led to the gazetting of PHASE 1 SEA: ELECTRICITY GRID EGI SEA: Central, Eastern, Western, PHASE 2 SEA: WIND AND SOLAR PV two expanded power line corridors INFRASTRUCTURE (2014-2016) Northern and International EGI ENERGY (2016-2019) (in April 2021) and nine gas This SEA was commissioned to guide Corridors. Environmental sensitivities Phase 2 was prompted by the need transmission pipeline corridors (in responsible power line and substation were mapped within these corridors to take into consideration the latest May 2021). A generic EMPr for gas planning within pre-assessed corridors. and adjusted so that there were several national-scale wind resource data pipeline development was also The SEA aimed to address the following routing options through different and to propose REDZs located closer gazetted for implementation as energy planning challenges: properties. These five corridors were to the main centre for electricity one of the outcomes of this SEA. *The Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE) was renamed in 2021, from Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DEFF). In June 2019, the DFFE incorporated the forestry and fisheries functions from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries into the Department of Environmental Affairs. DFFE is used throughout this article. THE CSIR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE The centre’s growth plan responds directly to the challenges identified in the NDP by providing unbiased decision support to solve the long-term sustainable energy needs of South Africa.