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South African Business 2021

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Welcome to the ninth edition of the South African Business journal. First published in 2011, the publication has established itself as the premier business and investment guide to South Africa. This issue has a focus on economic recovery plans which have been put in place to tackle the challenges thrown up by the global Covid-19 pandemic. National government’s focus on infrastructure and the use of Special Economic Zones is highlighted, together with a feature on the nascent maritime economy. Regular pages cover all the main economic sectors of the South African economy and give a snapshot of each of the country’s provincial economies. South African Business is complemented by nine regional publications covering the business and investment environment in each of South Africa’s provinces. The e-book editions can be viewed online at www.globalafricanetwork.com.

OVERVIEW to 2045.

OVERVIEW to 2045. Venetia Mine is by far the most important part of De Beers’ South African operation, accounting for 3.1-million of the 5.4-million carats recovered by the company from its six operations. Petra Diamonds has made it known that it will consider offers for parts of its business or all of its operations. This follows a strategic review where the issue of a R11.25-billion debt repayable in 2022 loomed large. The review began when the South African Covid-19 lockdown began. Most of the company’s major expenditure on expansion projects is behind it but reduced demand, even before the lockdown, has affected earnings. Revenue for the six months to December 2019 was down by 6%. Of the company’s three South African mines Finsch (Northern Cape) and Cullinan (Gauteng) generate 90% of output and 75% of revenue. In the Northern Cape, Ekapa Mining paid R300-million to buy out Petra Diamonds from a JV. Zinc When phase three is reached, the biggest new mining project in South Africa will deliver 600 000 tons of zinc for Vedanta Zinc International. Located at Aggeneys in the Northern Cape near the border with Namibia, the Gamsberg zinc project has so far attracted 0-million in investment from the company and has started trucking product to the Port of Saldanha. Phase one of the open-pit operation will deliver an annual load of 250 000 tons of zinc. If it proceeds to phase three, it will likely go underground. The Northern Cape Province is planning for a deep harbour at Boegoebaai. Part of the strategy involves the creation of a commodities corridor linking the Upington Industrial Park with the port. In August 2020 Australian miner Orion announced it had raised .2-million in share capital towards its Prieska Zinc-Copper Project. Iron ore and manganese In 2019 Sitatunga Resources purchased the East Manganese project on the Hotazel-Kalahari ore belt from Southern Ambition. Menar Holdings, which controls a majority share in Sitatunga, is mostly invested in coal. The overwhelming majority of the world’s manganese comes from the Postmasburg and Kalahari regions of the Northern Cape. Assmang has two manganese mines in the province: Nchwaning and Gloria. The Northern Cape produces more than 84% of South Africa’s iron ore. The province has two major iron belts, from Postmasburg to Hotazel, and running through Sishen and Kathu. Sishen is the most important iron-ore mine in South Africa, where operations include extraction and four beneficiation plants. Kumba Iron Ore has the huge Sishen facility at Kathu and Kolomela. Assmang, a joint venture comprising African Rainbow Minerals and Assore, mines at Khumani. The company will spend R2.7-billion on upgrading its Gloria mine. South32 is active in the Northern Cape: Hotazel Manganese Mines is made up of two mines, Wessels (underground) and Mamatwan (open cut), and the Metalloys manganese smelter. ■ ONLINE RESOURCES Council for Geoscience: www.geoscience.org.za Minerals Council South Africa: www.mineralscouncil.org.za Mintek: www.mintek.co.za National Department of Mineral Resources and Energy: www.dmr.gov.za SOUTH AFRICAN BUSINESS 2021 46

COUNCIL FOR GEOSCIENCE November 2020 The Council for Geoscience (CGS) is the national custodian responsible for the collection, compilation and curation of all onshore and offshore geoscience data and information. The CGS aims to use this information and knowledge to develop geoscience solutions to real-world challenges in South Africa. GEOSCIENCE MAPPING Geoscience mapping is the core function of the CGS and aims to develop fundamental geoscience knowledge using an integrated and multidisciplinary approach as well as innovation that merges several onshore and offshore geoscience themes such as geology, geotechnical studies, geochemistry, geophysics and economic geology for mineral and energy resources and their mineralising systems information to boost sustainable exploration for economic growth. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND GEOHAZARDS As the custodian of the national seismological network, the CGS monitors and maintains a geohazard inventory for South Africa. This information is primarily used in developing effective and novel geohazard mitigation solutions for safe and judicious land use. Modern artifi cial intelligence techniques are applied in subsidence mapping and seismic hazards characterization. WORLD CLASS FACILITIES The geoscience functions are supported by a multi-faceted laboratory that performs a wide range of analytical services such as petrography, whole rock geochemistry, petrophysics, coal science and hydrochemistry. The CGS also manages a geoscience museum, library, bookshop, and national core repository which are used by the scientific community and the general public. WATER AND ENVIRONMENT The CGS carries out hydrogeological studies and aquifer modelling and is also responsible for environmental geoscience research which aims to provide sustainable solutions to monitor and mitigate the impact of geology and mining activities on the health of the environment including its inhabitants. AFRICAN FOOTPRINT AND OTHER COLLABORATIONS As the permanent secretariat of the Organisation of African Geological Surveys (OAGS), the CGS has an impressive footprint in the African continent where various geoscience services have been rendered in line with global standards, international policy and governance. The CGS also collaborates with various academic institutions and science councils around the world. CGS AT WORK • The CGS is undertaking integrated and multidisciplinary geoscience mapping programme across South Africa. • Some of the recent projects include: - Multidisciplinary geoenvironmental baseline investigations in the Southern Karoo for possible shale gas development, which uncovered previously undefi ned groundwater aquifers. - Regional soil geochemical sampling and detailed follow-up surveys, particularly within the Northern Cape, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. - Geothermal energy and carbon capture and storage research, which aims to expand the current renewable energy mix of South Africa and decrease the carbon footprint. - Ground stability and geotechnical assessments for infrastructure development in the Northern Cape and Free State Provinces. CONTACT US Our head office is located at: 280 Pretoria Street, Pretoria, 0184 I @CGS_RSA I I I Tel: +27 (0)12 841 1911 I Email: info@geoscience.org.za I Web: www.geoscience.org.za

Other recent publications by Global Africa Network:

South African Business 2021
African Business 2020 edition
Western Cape Business 2021
Free State Business 2021
Gauteng Business 2020/21 edition
North West Business 2020-21 Edition
Limpopo Business 2020/21 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2020-21 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2020-21 edition
Northern Cape Business 2020/21 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2020 edition
Western Cape Business 2020 edition
Free State Business 2020 edition
Free State Investment Prospectus
South African Business 2020 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2019/20 edition
Limpopo Business 2019-20 edition
Gauteng Business 2019-20 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2019-20 edition
Northern Cape Business 2019/20 edition
Free State Business 2019 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2019 edition
North West Business 2019 edition
Western Cape Business 2019 edition
South African Business 2019 edition
Limpopo Business 2018-19 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2018-19 edition
Northern Cape Business 2018-19 edition
Gauteng Business 2018-19 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2018-19 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2018 edition
North West Business 2018 edition
Western Cape Business 2018 edition
Free State Business 2018 edition
South African Business 2018 edition
Limpopo Business 2017-18 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2017-18 edition
Gauteng Business 2017-18 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2017-18 edition
Northern Cape Business 2017-18 edition
North West Business 2017 edition
Free State Business 2017 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2017 edition
Western Cape Business 2017 edition
South African Business 2017 edition
Mpumalanga Business 2017 edition
Limpopo Business 2016-17 edition
KwaZulu-Natal Business 2016-17 edition
South African Business 2016 edition
Gauteng Business 2016 edition
Eastern Cape Business 2016 edition